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首页 > 技术交流 > 花卉栽培 > 如何种植英国月季
如何种植英国月季
沃彩园艺供应链(杭州中心) / 2009-07-30

SOIL FOR ROSES
适合月季的土壤
On the whole roses love clay, enjoy a well balanced loam, tolerate sandy conditions but will struggle in chalk. Very sandy and chalky soils will need improving. Roses prefer a neutral to acid soil, a pH of around 6.5 but are very happy on the margins of this. A pH of 7 or below indicates an acid soil that would benefit from the addition of garden lime or mushroom compost. Like wise an alkaline soil will require improvement a well rotted farmyard manure or composts are ideal but not always readily available, peat is also good but as a finite resource should be avoided if possible, 
      一般而言,月季喜欢肥沃均衡的黏性壤土,能够忍受砂质土壤,但是会在白垩土(偏碱性土壤)中生长不良。砂质化或白垩化很重的土壤需要改良。月季喜欢中性偏酸的土壤,pH为6.5的情况最合适。pH值为7或以下的酸性土壤,用园艺用消石灰或堆肥可以改善。同样的如果土壤成碱性的话,通过在土壤中施用腐熟的厩肥或堆肥来改良pH是最好的解决办法,但并不总是容易找到(腐熟的厩肥或堆肥)。泥炭也是不错的栽培基质,但作为一种有限的资源,如果可能的话应尽量少用。
there are some very good peat substitutes available instead. Soil should be well dug in advance if possible and it is at this stage that any additions can be made.

有一些很好的替代品可以代替泥炭(如松鳞介质)。如果有可能的话,土壤在种植之前应该好好的翻耕,然后加入合适的添加物。
RECEIVING YOUR ROSES
接到你的月季时
Please Note: Bare-root roses are tied in bundles. If you have ordered more than one rose please cut the string holding the roses together and separate carefully before planting.
请记住:裸根月季苗是一束束的绑捆在一起的。如果你订购了不止1棵月季的话,在栽前请务必剪断捆月季的绳子,小心的把它们分开。
        Roses should not be planted when their roots are dry nor should they be planted during frost. If it is frosty when you receive them, they should not take any harm left unopened in their package for up to one week. If it remains frosty for longer than this open the package and, after moistening the roots, place the roses - still in their bundle - in a container of damp soil or damp sand. A wooden box, bucket or large polythene bag will usually hold enough soil for this purpose. Plant out the roses when the frost has disappeared. If the roses arrive when it is not convenient for you to plant them, they should be ‘heeled in’ out of doors the moment the weather permits.
      在根系干燥的情况下或在寒冷的天气不适宜种植月季。如果你接到受冻的月季苗,尽量不要去动他们,让月季苗在未打开的包装盒里乖乖的待上1周。当你1周后打开包裹时如果它们还是处于受冻状态时。请弄湿根系,保持它们一捆的状态放进一个装满湿砂或湿润土壤的容器中。木盒,水桶或者任何能装足够土壤的塑料袋都行。当冰消失的时候移植它们。如果月季包裹到达,你又不便于种植它们的时候,在天气允许的情况下先将它们放在户外用土覆盖根部(假植)。
HEELING IN YOUR ORDER IN BAD WEATHER
在恶劣的天气里假植
If your bare root rose order arrives in a period of heavy frost it is going to be very difficult to plant it. Therefore, in preparation for it’s arrival have an area of soil covered with an old piece of carpet or something the frost is unlikely to penetrate, in which the rose maybe ‘heeled in’ until it is able to be planted. When it arrives dig a trench deep enough to cover all the roots. Lay the rose against the side of the trench on which you have mounded the soil and simply dig more soil over the roots, compressing the soil as you go.
如果你的裸根月季苗在长时间的冰冷天气中到达,在这个天气里是很难种植的。因此,在苗到来前做好准备,用一块旧地毯或一些霜冻不能渗透的东西把选中地区的土壤覆盖,把苗假植在其中,直到它能够种植时候再撤去。当苗到达后,挖一条足够能把所以根系都能放进去的深沟。把苗放在你已经堆起土的深沟里然后简单的挖更多的土覆盖上根系上,把土压实后再离开。
PLANTING A BARE ROOT ROSE
种植裸根月季苗
For a bare root rose the hole should be wide enough to allow the roots to be spread out and deep enough so that the base of the stems are just covered. If required, the addition of proprietary rose food or bone meal, into the base of the hole, should be done now. A handful is enough and this should be mixed in with the soil there to avoid root scorch. A little powdered food can also be sprinkled onto the removed soil before it is returned.
用于种植裸根月季苗的坑必须是足够宽和深以至于能让月季苗的根系舒展,以及能够把根茎部刚好覆盖上。另外须在栽植坑的底部放一些月季专用肥料或骨粉。一小把就够了,这些肥料必须与土壤混合以免烧根。少量粉状肥料也可以洒在远离根系的土壤中。
PLANTING A CONTAINER ROSE
种植月季容器苗

The same depth applies for a potted rose, with the first inch or so of the branches below soil level, and the hole wide enough for the root ball, there is no need to tease the roots out but better to leave the root ball intact. If purchased early in the summer season (before June) it is wise to leave the rose in it’s pot to give the roots time to establish.
对于盆栽的月季苗,种植深度要求根茎基部埋在土壤水平线下大约相距2.5cm。坑的宽度应能容纳整个根球。没必要去修整根系最好保持根系的完整。如果是在初夏(6月之前)购买的,明智的方法是让月季苗留在它的容器里,给根系恢复的时间。

SPECIFIC ROSE REPLANT DISORDER 特别的月季种植方式
Unfortunately roses should never be planted where they have been before, unless the ground is given adequate rest or is treated. The old fashioned method of treatment was Jeyes fluid but there are other products available that are less harmful including a tar based product. If leaving the ground to rest a period of two or more years will be required. In the mean time plant the area with other plants such as begonias which, it is said, have cleansing properties. The alternative is to dig out and replace the soil from elsewhere in the garden, or import fresh soil.
遗憾的是月季不能种在曾种过它们的土地上(轮作),除非该土地经过充分的修整或者重新处理。老的处理方法是用洁怡液。但现在有其他的可用产品,产品中含有更少的沥青提炼产物。先把土地闲置两年以上已恢复土壤肥力,同时种植时套种其他植物如秋海棠。据说,其成分中含有清洁土壤功能的物质。将花园中的土壤深度翻耕或者加入新的土壤(以改善土质)。

You could also dig a hole large enough for a bio-degradable cardboard box, no smaller than 1 cubic foot in size and fill with fresh soil. The box should be sunk into the ground in the position where you wish to plant your new rose and filled with good virgin soil or compost. Plant your rose in the centre of the box at normal planting depth.
你也可以挖一个洞,不小于1立方英尺,放一个差不多大的纸板箱,然后填入新的土壤。把填好混有肥料的新土箱子放在你想种植月季的地里。然后按照普通的种植深度把你的月季栽植在箱子中。
PLANTING ROSES IN POTS
在容器里栽植月季

As a rough guide, for smaller shrubs which grow up to 3ft, use pots with a 14 - 16 inch diameter. For larger ramblers and scramblers use pots with a depth of up to 20 - 22 inches.
粗略的估计,小的能长到75cm的灌木用直径14-16英寸(1英寸约为2.54cm)的容器。对于大型藤本月季来说,一般用20-22英寸深的容器。
As with planting roses into the ground the base of the stems should be just below the surface of the soil. If using a ready made compost it would be wise to choose one that is soil based. Always add drainage to the bottom of the pot, shingle is fine, roses hate to have their feet in water. Leave enough distance from the edge of the pot to the compost to allow for watering without compost spillage, a couple of inches is advisableEvery year when the rose is dormant, compost should be scraped away to a depth of a few inches and replaced. Then, about every three years or so the dormant rose should be removed and all the compost replaced.
种植月季的根茎基部应该略低于土壤表面。如果要使用已经制备好的营养土,最好选择那种园土。一般在容器底部设排水口,瓦片是很好的选择,月季讨厌根部一直浸在水里。表土离容器口5cm的距离,以免浇水时候土壤肥力会溢出。每年月季冬季休眠的时候,刮去表面10cm深度的营养土,然后填入新的营养土。每过3年,月季休眠时候,在移植时换盆换土。
TRANSPLANTING MATURE ROSES
移植成年的月季

1. Prepare the area well. 2. Prune the rose as hard as possible, leaving some younger wood. 3. When digging up the rose, try to retain the soil as a ball around the roots. It is likely that some roots will be damaged in this process but as long as most of the fibrous roots remain intact this should not cause too much concern. 4. Plant with care, being careful not to break up the root ball when treading the soil down. 5. Water well and thereafter, regularly.
1、准备好合适的种植地点。
2、对月季植株尽可能地强剪,保留那些新生枝条。
3、当挖掘植株时,尽可能保留根系完整,让土壤和根系成一个土球。在这个过程中一些根系会受到损伤,但是只要大多数须根完整无缺就不要太在意。
4、种植时候小心,在压实土壤的时候注意不要把土球弄散了。
5、浇透水,然后定期浇水。

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